Internet … you use it every day for study, work or entertainment. In a fairly short period of time, the network has become a necessity, and now it is difficult to imagine life without it. But how much do you know about the Internet? Do you know that we should thank the USSR for this wonderful invention?
Here are 10 things you should know about the Internet.
1. The satellite. That’s where it all began.
In 1957, the USSR launched the first artificial satellite into Earth’s orbit. This was a huge surprise for the United States, which greatly feared its technological lag behind the enemy during the Cold War.
The first reaction of President Dwight D. Eisenhower was the creation in 1958 of the “Advanced Research Projects Agency” (ARPA). One of his research programs, headed by Dr. L.C. Licklider, was connected with the prototype of the Internet.
Who said that war does not lead to anything good? The Internet, perhaps, is one of the most necessary technologies that came out of the Cold War.
2. Before the Internet was ARPANET
The logical map of the first 4 nodes of ARPANET in December 1969, was drawn by Larry Roberts. (The image is stored in the “Computer History Museum”)
In 1969, after Liklajdera, who left ARPA, his successors Ivan Sutherland, Bob Taylor, Larry Roberts and his colleagues created a network that later became the Internet. Initially, ARPANET consisted of four nodes (or computers called Interface Message Processors, which later evolved into routers) located in Los Angeles, the Stanford Research Institute, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah.
The first entries in the journal ARPANET: an appeal to Charles S. Kline (Charles S. Kline), the very first person to connect to a remote host via ARPANET (The image is stored in the “Computer History Museum”)
“We phoned our colleagues from the research institute,” recalls Leonard Kleinrock. “We introduced L and asked by phone:” Do you see L? “” Yes, we see L “- came the answer.We introduced O and asked:” Do you see O? “” Yes, we see O. ” Then we entered G and everything went wrong! We immediately rebooted and ARPANET earned. “
Since then, it took several more years for ARPANET to become popular.
3. Packet switching. How the Internet works.
We will not go too far into the technical component, but we need to know how the data moves through the Internet. Let the data go from point A to point B (for example, text and images from a web page from the server to your browser).
One way to implement the transfer is to open the channel from point A to point B: the data is transferred by a chain, bit by bit, until it is finally transmitted. This is a very fast way of transmitting information, but it entails great expenses: the special channel must remain open until the last bit of data is sent. This method is called circuit switching, and this is the system that is used in telephone companies.
In the early 1960s, Paul Baran, Donald Davies and Leonard Kleinrock, working independently, came up with another way to transfer data. Large pieces of data are divided into several small packets and sent over the network. Each package itself chooses a route to reach its goal. If all the packets have arrived, they are reassembled into the original data.
Data in this way is transmitted more slowly (packet loss is possible, so they must be sent again), but it has a significant advantage. The package path to the destination is not fixed, the package itself chooses the path to the destination, in order to avoid damage.
4. TCP / IP is the Internet language
In 1973, Vint Cerf (often called the “father of the Internet”) and Bob Kahn created the TCP / IP set of communication protocols, the main language used by computers to communicate with each other on the network.
TCP / IP is so simple that D. Waitzman suggested (not without humor) the protocol “IP over Avian Carriers” (IPoAC). IPoAC was described in RFC 1149 (RFC, or Request for Comments, is a document describing some of the internal mechanisms of the Internet) by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). This RFC was written by D. Waitzman and published on April 1, 1990. The basic idea of this “protocol” is to tie some data carrier (such as a memory card) to the pigeon’s foot and send it to its destination.
IPoAC was first “implemented” (that is, they actually did it) by the Linux User Group of Bergen (Bergen Linux user group). They sent 9 pigeons, each carried 1 ping to their destination, about 5 km away, but they received only 4 answers. Pretty bad result.
Then, in 2004, a group of Israeli enthusiasts sent 3 mail pigeons, able to find their way home at great distances from their destination. (~ 100 km from the start). Each dove carried 20-22 tiny memory cards. The total amount of data was 4 GB, and coped with this pigeons in less than 4 hours.
5. Al Gore really created the Internet. Well … or something about that.
“Remember America, I gave you the Internet, and I can take it,” joked Al Gore at the “Late Show” show with David Letterman.
“While serving in the State Congress, I took the lead in creating the Internet. I took the initiative in promoting a number of initiatives that were important for our country’s economic growth and environmental protection, improvements in our education system … “
Although the term “Internet initiative” is vague, Gore, however, has done a lot of legislative work to create a powerful national data network, which is a significant part of the Internet.
6. Spam father: Gary Thuerk
Spam is an old marketing method. The very first spam contained a dental advertisement of its services, sent by telegrams in 1864. Then, as now, people who received telegrams even wrote to local newspapers complaining about advertising.
The first spam in the network was sent by Digital Equipment Marketing Manager Gary Thuerk in 1978 to 393 ARPANET users. He advertised a new model of computers.
Someone from Rand Corporation sent him a letter, saying that he violated the ARPANET rules. (There was an unwritten law that people would not use ARPANET for sale, Gary Souerk was justified in that, he only promoted the product.) After that, the chief of Souyork was contacted from the Communications Agency and made a promise from him that Gary will never again be spammed.
Souyerk took a place in history as the father of spam, for which he got into the Guinness Book of Records. But now he is engaged in anti-spam protection companies. The reaction of people to him is ambiguous: some are happy to meet a man with unusual fame, some want to beat him, and others just avoid like the plague.
7. Sexy Web: 12% of websites = porn!
We can not talk about the Web, let alone pornography. Below are some statistics:
• Number of pornographic sites: 4.2 million (12% of the total number of websites)
• Number of pornographic pages: 420 million.
• The number of pornographic search requests per day: 68 million (25% of the total number of searches by search engines)
• Daily pornographic e-mail distribution: 2500 million letters (8% of the total number of letters)
• Internet users who watch porn: 42,7%
• Visitors to pornographic websites: 72 million (per month)
• Money turnover of the Internet porn industry per year: $ 4.9 billion
• At the moment about 28.5 thousand Internet users are watching pornography.
According to the statistics of GOOD Magazine:
• 35% of all Internet downloads have a pornographic nature.
• Every day on the Internet there are 266 new porn sites.
• “Sex” is the most common word on the Internet.
• 70% of the porn traffic runs in a 9-hour working day.
• The United States produces 89% of all online porn.
8. The rise of the blogosphere.
Blogs (short for “weblog”) are some of the most updated resources on the Internet. According to Technorati there are about 112,800,000 blogs, and 175,000 new blogs are added every day. And this is about 122 blogs per minute!
The term “blog” was coined by John Barger on December 17, 1997. So he named his resource robotwisdom.com, which is a collection of interesting links that John found while surfing the Internet. Ego site and became the world’s first blog.
Yes, technically there are blogs that preceded robotwisdom.com, but they never called themselves a “blog”. Nowadays websites, such as winagames.com or casinosmash.com also started off as blogs. And look where they are now.
Blogging became very popular in 1999 with the advent of resources that allowed you to create your blog with a few mouse clicks (such as: Pitas.com, LiveJournal and Blogger.com) Today blogs are everywhere.
So what happened to John Barger, the first blogger in the world? Paul Boutin of Wired Magazine writes:
Homeless and broken at the age of 53 Barger could not even pay his domain robotwisdom.com. He had to leave his apartment in Chicago. At the moment he is in search of work.
A few weeks later I discovered that John paid the domain and brought back to life his robotwisdom.com blog. I contacted him and it turned out that he moved to Memphis, but he does not work, living on less than $ 1 a day. A little later he sent me a letter in which he wrote: He invented the term “blog”, but did not earn a penny.
9. Surprise! There were three YouTube creators.
Before the advent of YouTube was … a dating site and it was called “Tune In Hook Up”. To some extent this was the first version of YouTube, which completely failed.
The YouTube we all know and love has started with Chad Hurley, Steve Chen and Jawed Karim. They wanted to post videos on their site from their party just because the clips were too big to be sent by e-mail. Place the video on the Internet was also difficult – you had to decide on the video format.
This trio created YouTube in 2005, and did not have time to pass the year, as the number of placements of video by users per day reached 70 thousand. YouTube has become the fastest growing project in the history of the Internet. Found that in 2007, YouTube required the width of the channel more than the entire Internet in 2000!
Harley and Cheney sold Google’s resource for an unthinkable $ 1.65 billion. And what happened to Javed? He left the team to pursue higher education before the deal with Google. However, he did not stay empty-handed. From the sale of YouTube, Javed Karim received $ 64 million.
The first video was uploaded to YouTube on April 23 at 20.27. It is filmed by himself, Javed, walking around the San Diego Zoo.
The Web is a huge social network. Even before its emergence, there were networks that allowed people to communicate and cooperate. The term “social network” appeared after it was calculated that in 2005 the number of page views of MySpace exceeded the number of Google views.
Prior to MySpace, there existed Classmates.com, that’s where the creators of Odnoklassnikov.ru stashed the name), launched in 1995, and SixDegrees.com (launched in 1997, closed in 2001). At the moment, the most successful resources are Friendster, MySpace, Orkut, LinkedIn and Facebook. And how successful are they? MySpace was sold to Rupert Murdoch’s News Corporation for $ 580 million, and Facebook is estimated at billions of dollars.
There is a social network of any orientation: for fans of movies, online games, anime, books, etc. An interesting subnetwork of social networks are news resources such as: Digg, reddit and Mixx.
They allow you to create content for the users themselves. Visitors post interesting material in their opinion and vote for other people’s news. As a result, the content is placed on the rating system: the most popular and liked posts are at the beginning of the news feed.